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Archive for the ‘Composition Tips’ Category

Aug
3

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

If you’re like me and love great landscape photography, then you’ve probably wondered how the same photographers seem to be able to pull off beautiful shots of sweeping mountain vistas or incredible black and white images of rolling hills and valleys. It’s as if they have some secret formula for “getting lucky” time and time again. Have you ever thought about what goes into making a strong landscape photograph? The techniques, the composition, the timing, the tools?

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

The fact is, there is no secret formula for making better photos of landscapes. There’s almost always much more that goes into the task than simply snapping a picture of a pretty place. Most great landscape photos are made in beautiful places but that doesn’t mean that every picture of beautiful scenery is a great landscape. While there are no concrete “rules” for doing solid landscape photography there are a few ways to strengthen your landscape work and make those “awesome shots” happen more frequently.

#1 – Construct Interesting Elements

I once had a professor of photography tell me that any photograph could be judged by how much information it contained. It’s easy to say that a successful landscape photo shows the beauty and majesty of a place, but the truth is there is so much more. When setting up for your photo, pay attention to everything that falls within the frame. Look for interesting foreground elements such as trees or rocks, water, even people or animals.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Look for ways to add more information to the photograph. Generally, the more you fill the frame with interesting elements the more interesting and appealing the overall photograph will be. But there is also a flip side to this concept as sometimes less is more. There are times when you must know what to NOT include in order to give a better feel to the photo. Look at this photo from a blustery winter morning.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

The feelings of solitude and isolation are brought about by the use of empty space. More on composing your landscape photos a little later.

#2 – Lighting

Yes, yes…I’m sure you’ve heard the phrase “chasing the light” when it comes to making good photos. This is especially true when it comes to landscape photography. There’s a reason why photographers love to shoot in the early morning hours (ugh) or in the waning light of the afternoon or late evening.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

It comes down to the quality of light which again, adds more interest to a landscape. When you have beautiful light, the entire landscape is transformed into something different. It becomes less ordinary and more extraordinary.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

As much as it pains me, getting up early and staying out late is virtually a necessity for landscape photographers. The reason being is that some of the most gorgeous golden light comes in the late afternoon as the sun gives way to night. Just as true, the early morning “Blue Hour” as the first glimpses light begin to appear, is another prime time for shooting landscapes.

Even locations that seem somewhat lackluster at midday can take on an entirely new feel in the late or early hours of the day. So be sure to try out different spots at daybreak and sundown. There’s a good reason why we landscape junkies really do chase the light.

#3 – Composition

The very word “composition” describes the nature of how something’s parts are constructed or arranged together. Having all the best ingredients doesn’t help you much if you don’t know how to put them all together into an awesome cake, a beautiful symphony, or in your case…a strong landscape photograph. The way you compose the elements in your landscapes can often make or break the photograph. Again, there are no actual rules to composing your photo but there are some tried and true practices.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Adjust the horizon so that it isn’t exactly in the middle of the frame and place foreground or background elements off-center to add interest and make stronger images.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

It helps to use imaginary lines such as the Rule of Thirds (again, not exactly a rule) to help compose your image.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Just as importantly, always remember to shoot your landscapes in accordance with how they “feel”. Composition in landscape photography is about conveying a feeling, not just how the scene looks. Shoot different compositions of the same location until you find one that works best for that particular landscape.

#4 – Gear and Technical Considerations

While a successful landscape photo doesn’t rely on having the latest or greatest gear, there are a few gear and technical aspects that make for better photos. Here are a few tips.

Use a wider lens

Even though many solid landscape photos can be shot at long focal lengths using zoom lenses, generally short focal length (wider angle) lenses work best. Wide angle lenses allow you to include more into the frame of your photo.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Use smaller apertures

Continuing on from lenses, using a smaller aperture increases the depth of field and brings more elements into focus. Remember, the larger the F-Number the smaller the physical aperture of the lens becomes.

….and wait for it…..

Use a tripod

If you’ve read any of my other articles, you’ll know that when it comes to landscape photography I believe a sturdy tripod is worth its weight in gold. Reducing motion as much as possible is key for obtaining sharper landscape photographs. Using a tripod helps to eliminate as much camera shake as possible. This becomes important because generally the smaller apertures used in landscape photography call for longer shutter speeds which make hand holding the camera less desirable.

Final Thoughts

A successful landscape photo is a careful construction of multiple ingredients. Knowing what to include (or exclude from your photo) and understanding when the best light happens, go a long way to making a better image.

4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography

Just as importantly, knowledge of how to compose the elements in the frame and what techniques or gear will be needed are both essential to “getting lucky” time and time again. Producing stronger landscapes takes patience and a little planning but it is well worth the effort.

The post 4 Key Elements to Help You Create Stronger Landscape Photography by Adam Welch appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Jul
31

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

Visual weight is the term given to compositional elements within an image and how much visual impact they have. Some things will feel heavier or more present within the image in comparison to other elements. As a photographer, it is your role to understand this and use it to your advantage when setting up your composition.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

How can visual weight affect an image?

  • Light colored elements = a light feel
  • Dark colored elements = a heavy feel
  • Eyes/faces = heavy
  • Text = heavy
  • Negative space = light
  • Focus = can be heavy or light depending on what you are focusing on
  • Image placement within the frame = can choose to make something heavier or lighter
  • Scale = can affect the weight of an element
  • Balance = can affect the weight of an element or the feel of the overall image
  • Color = a pop of unexpected color is heavier than its surroundings

Examples and Discussion

Light or even toned images and feel

This macro shot of red clover is tonally quite similar over the entire image, with a shallow depth of field and a soft focus. The color tones are also soft so the overall feeling to this image visually is quite light – there isn’t really anywhere for the eye to settle and engage with the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Compare it with another image that is tonally quite similar, color tones are muted with soft blurry cloud elements. However, in the image below there is a distinct contrast between the white and black points in this image. The black rocks have distinct visual weight and there is a definite point for the eye to rest on and travel around the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Image with large dark areas

In the case of dark moody shots with a lot of black background showing, you would think that the black would overpower the whole image. However, When the subject is well lit and positioned in a sculptural shape like the gerbera below, the subject carries the visual weight of the image and the black recedes into the background to support it.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

The landscape below is deliberately underexposed to add drama to the sky and show off the subtle light beams through the clouds. This meant the dark rocks are particularly underexposed and so they carry the visual weight of the image, almost slightly too heavy towards the bottom as a result.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Color against a neutral background

A bright pop of color in an otherwise neutral tone background carries all the visual weight in the following two images.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Additionally, in the image of the New Zealand native wood pigeon below, the sharp eye holds the visual weight, with extra emphasis due to the bright red color of the eye and the beak. This is where your eye is drawn first.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Balance and scale

Balance and scale are also important factors. In the lighthouse image below, the bright white of the lighthouse holds the eye and the attention, but the horizon line of the sky against the sea gives the necessary scale to balance the overall compostion of the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

This floating swimming platform has the visual weight in this image, balancing the landscape on the left of the frame, which in turn provides the scale to understand the platform in the overall image context. Being closer to the camera also gives the platform more weight in this composition as well.

Balance of light and dark

In the horseshoe image below, it has been deliberately shot to enhance both the dark shadows, The white spiderwebs and add textural details, while the shadows add supporting visual weight to the shapes of the horseshoes.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Below is a similar black and white image, with shadow detail supporting textural elements. But this image is more about the lighter areas, which take up most of the large central area within the image, so they carries more of the visual weight of the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Color and balance

Use of colour within an image can have significant impact. In the image of a sunset below, with the rich red clouds and the dark silhouetted tree line at the bottom, you might thing the dark trees carry the visual weight, but they instead balance out the large red cloud area nicely. The darkest or brightest element is not always the visually heaviest.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Tonally the image below is very even, with the dark sea cliffs being balanced out by the bright sunrise of the sea haze. But the surprise in this image is that the visual weight is carried by the single seagull in flight across the ocean.

Another sunrise, quite dark toned, but here the white froth of the waves taken as a long exposure to capture the movement has the visual weight within this image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Assessing visual weight within a composition

The image of a leafy stream below has a nice balance of light and dark. The stream travels diagonally through the image, drawing the eye. While there is quite a heavy visual weight in the bottom left-hand corner, it still has enough light to have texture and detail and be part of the image. There are enough brighter areas above it and through the water as well so that the overall composition doesn’t feel overwhelmed by the darker areas. Our brains can accept that it is an image taken within a forest, so there will be light and dark areas.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Visual weight working against the image

Wild Kookaburra on a tree branch (below). In processing, this image has been deliberately overexposed as the original image was taken in shade and was quite dark. This has changed the tonal balance quite a lot, especially in the background. The branch closest to the camera has all the visual weight in this image, weighing it down and making it heavy on the right side. The bird’s dark eye and the feather detail on the wing do counteract the branch a bit, but not enough.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Still life with a feather – an experiment shot while learning still life and food photography. An another example of how visual weight needs to be taken into account in your composition. Here the feather is too light in tone, too small in scale and too soft in structure to balance out the darkness of the basket of eggs in the background. Even though the feather is in sharp focus, the egg basket has all the visual weight in this image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Visual weight working for the image

Negative space works really well here with the macro flower shot below. The flower only takes up a small part of the overall image, but because that one element is in sharp focus and the rest is very blurred and becomes part of the background, the flower has all the visual weight in this image. Notice how at the very bottom of the frame, the stem of flowers that is in partial focus also contributes to the weight of the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Framing and placement of the gerbera flowers (below) relate directly to the visual weight of them within the image. The diagonal line bisects the image in half, but adds a dynamic angle that engages the eye. The selective focus at the front of the petals combined with the dark stem visually balance out the rest of the negative space in this image. The two other flowers are further away and out of focus so support the subject visually but due to their softness, do not overwhelm the image.

How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition

Summary

Visual weight is a more advanced composition concept, one that may be difficult to grasp initially. Understanding how it can impact your final image is important because thinking about it as part of the overall composition is necessary. Obviously with things like landscapes, macro, flowers, food photography and other staged or stationary situations you have more time to think and adjust your composition. With street, event, wedding, sport or other changeable situations, you may not get time to consider all your options.

As can be seen from the examples above, both good and bad, visual weight can and does make a difference to the final image. Learning to see compositionally and frame your shot up with intent and forethought will improve your photography more than anything else, in my opinion.

Because visual weight is affected by other elements of the composition – like tone, focus, light/dark, balance and scale – if you are thinking about those, then visual weight becomes part of the overall composition equation. It is still useful to think about it as a separate element, if you have time to do so, and of course, if you remember. Do you use visual weight as a compositional element for your images?

The post How to Understand and Use Visual Weight in Composition by Stacey Hill appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Jul
15

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

 

Minimalism is one of those movements that some people see as a recent fad or newfangled things, like fidget spinners or man buns. In reality, minimalism is a true case of making what was once old new again, and unlike the aforementioned man bun, that’s a good thing.

In photography, minimalism is an obvious visual statement; the story of the photograph is simplified, elements are reduced, and clean space is added. Not only has minimalist photography become its own genre (you can see some excellent examples of minimal imagery here), but photographers specializing in the discipline have come into their own, creating a revitalized, attractive space of art for us all to enjoy.

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Minimalism (even in photography) isn’t new. Before the term became ubiquitous and synonymous with “new” and “clean”,  the style existed in various forms under other names. It has had a profound and positive influence on photography as it exists in the modern world.

But do you have to fully embrace specializing as a minimalist photographer to benefit from the advantages of the style? Absolutely not! Each of the tips below can work for almost any kind of photography. Let’s explore some of the guidelines and see how you can apply them to your own work, regardless of genre or type.

#1 – Make the story concise

As with any photo, the story is the most important thing to convey to your viewer. In minimalism, you want to tell that story as efficiently as possible. That means clean backgrounds, negative space where appropriate, and a well-defined subject.

We will discuss background and separation of the subject in more detail below, but generally, you don’t want any distracting elements in ANY photograph. Keeping your background clean, whether through blurring, or using a solid color or simple texture can remove any unwanted distractions.

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Negative space is defined as the margin around your subject and other important objects in your composition. Properly used, this space accentuates what you actually want the viewer to deem as most important in the photo.

When looking through the viewfinder at a potential shot, take a moment to get a feeling of the complexity of what you’re seeing. If the composition feels muddy or hard to discern, recompose your image to include some extra negative or white space around your subject.

#2 – Isolate the subject

Wide-open apertures along with proper positioning of the subject to background tend to make smooth, creamy backgrounds, separating it from the subject of the photo. This is right up the minimalist’s alley. Having a solid or smoothly blurred background really isolates what you want to highlight in the photo, and keeps the viewer’s eye from being overrun by more complex patterns to distinguish.

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

In some photos, you may not want that blurred effect on your background. Many landscape photos, for example, are shot using stopped-down apertures such as f/11 or f/16, because you want most of the scene in focus. This is because, in those situations, the entire scene can be the subject. In those situations, using color or patterns are other ways of separating the subject from your background.

But many other types of photos, especially nature and portraiture, benefit greatly from a wider aperture and using that to create separate layers in the image. Experimenting with the effects that aperture and distance have on that separation can provide many different looks for the same composition.

#3 – Use color to your advantage

One of the most powerful methods of constructing a minimalist image is by using color to create a contrast. While you don’t necessarily have to go to the extremes that you would in a completely minimalist photo, picking two or even three colors that juxtapose well with each other and featuring them prominently in the textures of the image can improve the attractiveness of the shot.

While minimalist photographs tend to use large areas of solid contrasting colors to establish simplicity, other photography can benefit by keeping the color palette small and using colors that work well together or invoke a particular feeling in the viewer. For example, I find one of the most intriguing and pleasing color combinations to the eye to be blue and red, as in this example of the old red rowboat on the shore (bel0w).

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Using a color wheel (as shown below), you can identify color harmony, which are complementary color combinations that are pleasing to the eye. Then try to use those color combinations in your images.

Color wheel

Diagram by Wikipedia contributor Jacobolus

#4 – Embrace leading lines

Because minimalist photography tends to feature very simple compositions, lines and textures are often used to improve upon storytelling and point the viewer in the right direction. Finding natural leading lines in your compositions can help guide the eyes of the viewer where you want them to go, which allows you to minimize the number of elements in your photo needed to tell the story.

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Lines can be found everywhere; train tracks, roads, sidewalks, and buildings are just a few examples. While they are easy to find, it is just as easy to misuse them and confuse the viewer. If the line is easy to pick out, then it should lead the eyes somewhere relevant. Lines should not lead the viewer randomly away from the subject, or out of the frame with no real destination.

#5 – Find texture and use it

Texture can be a powerful element in a photograph, especially when an entire image is built around it. Obviously most often used when shooting subjects in the natural world around us, textures are a tool that can communicate many things to the viewer, including emotions, mood, light, and darkness.

Because of the limited language of minimalism, texture itself is often used as the subject, usually in the form of repeated patterns. All photography, however, can benefit from its strategic use. What is the effect when the subject features a consistent, repeating texture, as opposed to one that consists of an uneven texture made up of objects of varying size and smoothness?

5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work

Texture is a great way to put a large, consistent element in your image without introducing too much distraction.

Can millions of grains of smooth beach sand, saturated with ocean water, serve as a different backdrop than a large area of broken shells and sand mixed together? What type of effect will this have on the viewer’s perception of the image?

Conclusion

As photographers, regardless of skill level, we are destined to be students of an innumerable amount of subjects. We must constantly keep learning, and apply the things we learn to our work, to keep innovating our style, invigorating our images, and keep our viewers interested.

While minimalist photography is very popular today and is an intriguing discipline, it’s not the chosen style for us all. But the ability to take the most important points from that genre and apply it to your own work is what elevates you as a photographer, and keeps you on top of your game.

What are your thoughts on the current state of minimalism, and its influence on art and photography? Is minimalism your favorite photography style? Have some minimalist images of your own to share? Let’s discuss this and more in the comments below.

The post 5 Guidelines of Minimalist Photography to Help Improve Your Work by Tim Gilbreath appeared first on Digital Photography School.

May
8

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

So what exactly is composition in photography and why is it such a big deal? Composition is the way you intentionally arrange or put together the visual elements in an image, in and around your subject. The goal is to catch the viewer’s interest and keep it wandering around your photo. While some people have an innate ability to “see” and compose great images, it is a skill that can be taught.

Once you have identified your subject, here are a few useful precepts you can use when composing your next great image.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

1. Simplicity

Now that you have your subject in mind, the first question is how do you showcase it so there is no doubt of your intent? Keeping it simple is a good approach, as clutter can distract or even make it difficult to identify your focus. Most times in landscape photography, you have no control over what is around your subject. Here the use of lighting can reduce clutter, as the brighter areas of your photo will draw the eye in. You can also find an angle that helps you remove any

Most times in landscape photography, you have no control over what is around your subject. Here, the use of lighting can reduce clutter, as the brighter areas of your photo will draw the eye to them. You can also find an angle that helps you remove any strong elements that can detract the focus of the object. Thus use only what you consider necessary components. Good composition is as much about what you leave out as it is what you include.

Good composition is as much about what you leave out as it is what you include.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

2. Lines

You have no doubt heard the term lead-in lines – which are lines that direct the eye where you want it to go. This is a powerful tool in composition and can add a three-dimensional feel to your image. It does this by creating movement and can take away that static/flat feeling.

Lines can be literal (such as roads, streams, power lines, or fences) or implied (those that link different subjects in the frame). While diagonal lines are considered the strongest, you are not limited to it as experimenting with horizontal, vertical and converging lines can also be a source of inspiration.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

3. Oddities

If you have more than one subject in your image, choose an arrangement with an odd number of subjects (at least three e.g. three rocks or trees). Similarly, you can frame or surround your main subject with two objects to add visual stimulation. Odd numbers within a frame are said to be more pleasing and comforting to the eye.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

Side Note: In landscape photography, even numbers in the frame can seem less natural and informal, although an even number of subjects can produce symmetry. This is just something to keep in mind if you are breaking the “rule of odds”.

4. Interest

The easiest way to create interest is by having a foreground element in your shot which adds extra depth and dimension. Following on from the point above, you can feature a subject in the foreground, middle, and background, keeping them harmonious or having subjects that complement each other. Complementary subjects are those that have some association (e.g. they are the same color, similar appearance, or add to your story in some way). On the opposite side of this, you can use juxtaposition to create some tension in your image.

Other ways to add interest can be showing the scale of the scene by including an object or person or even by framing your photo in an interesting way.

5. Rules? What Rules?

Most composition articles start with the rule of thirds. This rule divides the image into thirds horizontally and vertically and suggests that you arrange your subject and other important elements near these division lines or at their intersections. The objective is to be more visually pleasing, as placing your subject in center of the frame stops the eye there and takes away from the movement you are trying to create and use to your advantage.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

It is a classic rule that is widely used with great results, so it is an excellent place to start as a beginner. However, what if you want to create a perfectly symmetrical image, such as a mountain with its perfect reflection in a lake? What if you have just as much interest in the sky as in the ground? An image like that will clearly not follow the rule of thirds, would it?

When you are out in the real world looking at the scene before you, these rules become more like handy suggestions. You need to allow your subject to influence your composition and not force it to conform to the “rules”. Therefore knowing the rules helps you decide when it is okay to break them, this is a skill you will develop over time.

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography

Conclusion

Composition is important. To get a sense of how important, think about the impact of what you perceive as a really good or bad image. First, analyze the elements and how they work or do not work together. Identify the subject(s) of the photo and break it down into which compositional “rules” are present or broken. Are there lead-in lines? Is there a point of interest in the foreground or odd numbers present? Remember to move around your scenery and try different angles for your composition and in time you will know which rules to apply or ignore.

Please share any images you have created that use one or more of these tips, in the comments below.

The post 5 Composition Tips for Landscape Photography by Nisha Ramroop appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Apr
13

Five Ways to Improve Your Composition Skills

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

Composition is one of the most important skills you can learn as a photographer. The interesting thing about composition is that it’s all to do with observation and learning to see. You may need to invest in a book or two to help you understand the basic principles, but nothing more. It’s a much more cost-effective way of becoming a better photographer than buying a new camera or lens!

There are five things you can do right away to improve your composition skills.

Composition and photography

1. Learn how to use your camera properly

The aim is to know your camera so well that you can photograph without thinking about it. This comes through familiarity and practice.

Try this exercise. Close your eyes and pick up your camera. Which buttons and dials do you need to use to adjust aperture, shutter speed, and autofocus? How do you select the active AF (autofocus) point? How do you apply exposure compensation? If you don’t know the answers without looking, then read your manual. You should be so familiar with these settings that you can adjust them automatically, with no more than a glance at your camera.

Learn this simple approach

Digital cameras have lots of menu options and it’s easy to get caught up in adjusting settings. I suggest you ignore most of them and keep your approach simple. Here’s how:

  • Always shoot RAW format and set White Balance to Daylight or Auto and keep it there. Pick one camera profile and stick with it. You can adjust all of these settings afterward in Lightroom.
  • Don’t touch any settings such as lens corrections, contrast, dynamic range, noise reduction, sharpness or highlight preservation. These are all irrelevant if you shoot RAW.
  • Don’t switch between metering modes. Stick to one and learn how it works.
  • Understand your camera’s focus modes and when to use each one.
  • Learn how to select the active AF point so you can make the camera focus where you want.
  • Make sure you know how to switch to Manual shooting mode and when you should do so.
  • Learn how to apply exposure compensation, preferably without taking your camera away from your eye.

For most forms of photography, you don’t need to know anything more than that. The main exception is anything that involves fast action, as you may need to adjust your camera’s autofocus settings to suit. The idea is to know your camera so well that you can concentrate on observing the subject and finding the best possible composition.

Composition and photography

Some photographers say that the dials on cameras like the Fujifilm X-T1 (shown above) and old style film cameras help them adjust settings quickly.

Fiddling with your camera’s settings is a distraction. The more attention you pay to your settings, the less you’ll pay to the composition of your images.

2. Look beyond the obvious

The first viewpoint you find when you take a photo of something may not be the best or most interesting.

When you find a worthwhile subject spend some time with it. Try and look beyond what first attracted you to it. This is called working the subject.

  • What happens if you photograph it from another angle?
  • With another lens?
  • Or if you get closer or further away?
  • Is there anything interesting about the subject that you have overlooked?

For example, if you are taking someone’s portrait it might be because they have a captivating or beautiful face. But what else is interesting about them? Their clothes? Jewelry? Tattoos? Look beyond the face and see what you can find.

Composition and photography

I made some portraits of a friend of mine. But he also has interesting hands. After I made the portraits I asked him to hold his hands out and made this photo.

3. Educate your eye

You can learn a lot about composition by studying the work of master photographers. It’s time to pick some photographers whose work you like and get analytical. I like looking at photos taken decades ago. Photographers back then worked with much simpler equipment and didn’t have our technological advantages. Yet the best still created beautifully composed images.

So, how did they do it? When looking at somebody else’s work ask yourself these questions:

  • Are they working in black and white or color? How would switching from one to the other affect the composition?
  • What is the focal point of the image? Is it positioned in the frame according to the rule of thirds or could there be other principles at work?
  • What shapes and patterns do you see?
  • Is there any negative space in the photo? How much room does the subject have to breathe?
  • Is the photo balanced or unbalanced? What is the visual relationship between the various elements in the scene? Which are dominant and which are secondary in importance?
  • Can you tell what lens focal length the photographer may have used? How would using a different focal length affect the composition?
  • How did the photography create a sense of depth?

Questions like these deepen your understanding of the work of other photographers. The answers inform your work as you evolve as a photographer.

Composition and photography

This landscape scene was lit by the light reflected from the clouds and sky after the sun disappeared below the horizon. I first became aware of the beauty of this type of light when looking at the work of Galen Rowell, a famous adventure and landscape photographer.

4. Work with geometry and symmetry

Learn to look for shapes in your photos. A good place to start is with anything man-made, as we tend to build things with recognizable shapes like triangles, squares, and circles.

Repeating shapes create patterns and symmetry that can also form the basis of an interesting composition.

For example, when you look at this photo, what do you see?

At first glance, it’s a photo of an outdoor cinema screen in a Chinese village. But look closely and you start to see shapes. The rectangle of the screen is an obvious one. But did you notice the diamonds made by the pattern in the flooring? Or the organic shapes of the Chinese characters on the wall?

5. Use punctuation and gesture

Jay Maisel talks a lot about gesture and Bob Holmes talks about punctuation. Look up the work of these two photographers to learn more about these concepts.

Punctuation is the addition of something interesting, often a human figure, that completes a scene. The photo needs that little something extra to lift it above the ordinary. Punctuation is an important part of street and travel photography.

For example, this photo is completed and made stronger by the presence of the woman in the doorway.

Composition and photography

In his book “Light, Gesture & Color” Jay Maisel defines gesture as the thing that reveals the essence of the subject. Everything has it. Gesture takes us beyond the superficial to the essence of the subject and reveals itself through observation.

Imagine you are photographing a mountain. What do you see? Maybe it’s the shape of the mountain against the sky. The textures of the rocks scattered over the surface, the steepness of its cliffs, or the way that clouds wrap themselves around the summit. All these things are part of the gesture of the mountain, the things that make it what it is.

With people, gesture is a mixture of body language and attitude. If you are making a street photo it may be in the body language or appearance of somebody in the photo. If you are making a more formal portrait it is something in the model’s expression or body language that helps create mood or communicate character.

In this photo the pose and expression of the dancer are gesture.

Composition and photography - gesture

Punctuation and gesture are advanced concepts. But it’s worth thinking about how you can apply them to your photos, as they help make the composition of your images stronger.

Conclusion

Composition is an important skill. It takes time to master, but it’s worth the effort as the quality of your photos will improve immensely.

Do you have any other suggestions for ways to improve your composition skills? Please let us know in the comments. I’m looking forward to seeing what ideas you come up with.


Andrew is the author of the ebook Mastering Composition.

The post Five Ways to Improve Your Composition Skills by Andrew S. Gibson appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Mar
29

Visual Flow – How to Get the Most out of Composition

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

In photography terms, composition can make the difference between a good image and a fantastic one. Yes, you need all the other components; the light has to be dramatic, the subject compelling, and the colours vibrant. All of these will add to the final result. If you have all that, but your composition is not great, the image will fall flat.

Jay Maisel has a quote that goes like this, “As the photographer, you are responsible for every inch of the frame”. This is true, and one of Jay’s other mantras is that he prefers to speak about framing and not cropping. His view is that framing is done at the time of making the image. Cropping is done afterward in post-production. He maintains that cropping changes the original intent of the image. If you frame an image in a particular way and then crop it afterward, it really is a different image.

 

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Frame your scene correctly in camera

I don’t think Jay is saying that you shouldn’t crop, but rather that you need to compose with intent and purpose, not simply hope for the best and try and “fix” the image later by cropping. Good composition can really be impactful on your image. Changing your composition is free. You don’t need any special equipment or lenses. There’s no need to wait for a specific type of light. You can shoot at any time of day. Composition is the one thing in photography that is easiest to fix, yet it is most often overlooked.

There are many articles on DPS and other sites about composition and the best techniques for improving composition, so I won’t try to reinvent the wheel. What I want to talk about here is visual flow. This is more about the visual journey you are taking your viewer on than the destination. In this article, we aren’t going to discuss the rule of thirds and powerpoints, but we will discuss how framing, removing distractions, and how light, shape, and texture will all contribute to your composition.

We will look at how someone’s eye will travel through your image. You want the viewers of our images to look at them longer, to find them interesting and to be captivated and inspired by what they see.

Framing not cropping

As the photographer, you need to take responsibility for everything in the frame. That means, you decide what will be in the shot and sometimes more importantly, what will NOT be in the shot. Your subject needs to be in the frame obviously, but what else absolutely needs to be included? Ask yourself if all the elements in the frame are adding to the narrative or story you are trying to tell. If not, get rid of what is not working.

In this case, less is definitely more (and usually better). Be aware of visual clutter in the frame, objects that are distracting or drawing the viewer’s full attention away from the subject. This is really tough to get right and it takes time and practice. But once you become aware of this and work hard on fixing it, it will become much easier.

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Focus on your subject

Remove distractions

This sounds obvious but is not always easy. There are many things that can cause your viewer to be distracted when they look at your image. Any words in your photograph will automatically draw they eye. Signposts, graffiti, street signs…anything with words or letters will cause the viewer to look at that part of the image. If the wording is not the reason for the image, then try and remove that item from the frame as it may be distracting.

Color can cause the eye to wander. If your scene is full of color, that’s great, but if it is largely monochromatic and there is only one color in the frame, that color will become the focal point. Warm colors like yellow or red will very quickly pull the eye across to them, so be aware of the colors in your image.

The human form will also draw the eye. Again, if the person in the frame is a key part of the image, that’s great, leave them in the shot. But if not, then wait until they leave the scene or reframe the scene without them. As humans, we tend to find the human form in an image very quickly and this will become the main focus of the image.

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Be aware of distractions, words, powerlines etc

Using light, shape and texture

These three elements (there are more) will greatly help you in your visual flow.

Light is key to making any image. Without light, we cannot do photography. Light also informs so much in your image. You can use side light to emphasize texture in your image. You can use front light to create a silhouette, which will emphasise shape. These three elements are important tools in making sure your image compels people to look at it.

Shapes in your image add a dynamic feel. Get in close and emphasize the shape of an object. If it has a curve, make that curve fill the frame. Shapes can make a great subject too. They are all around you too, you just have to start looking.

Texture is a great way to emphasize your subject. To get great texture images, your light needs to come from the side. Side light enhances texture and each granular detail can be seen if the light is right. Texture will make your images seem three dimensional. Using texture is a great way to communicate more information about your subject.

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Use side light to emphasize texture.

Get in close

To make sure that you get the most out of the scene, you can do a few things. First, move in closer and fill the frame with your subject. This is especially useful if you are doing abstract or creative images. If you are not going to fill the frame, then decide where to put your subject. Yes, you can use the rule of thirds for this (this would be my last choice), but you can also use the Fibonacci Spiral (Golden Ratio) or any number of other compositional techniques.

The most important part of an effective composition is to make sure that your viewer knows what they are supposed to look at in your image. If your subject (the reason for the image) is unclear, your image will have little impact. You have likely seen this happen. You show someone photos from your last trip and they simply glance at them in passing. Then suddenly, something catches their attention in a particular image and they stop and look intently at the scene. That’s when you know your image has hit the mark.

As I said earlier, all the elements need to come together to make a great image, but if you have good light, great exposure and bad composition, chances are, people will just flip past the image.

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Fill the viewfinder with your subject.

Conclusion

So, how else can you improve your composition? It is deceptively simple but easily overlooked. Some of the things I do is get inspiration from the top photographers in the genre I want to shoot. If it is street photography, then I am looking at Henri Cartier-Bresson, Jay Maisel, Ernst Haas, and others. If it is landscape photography, then I will be looking at Ansel Adams, Charlie Waite, and Koos van der Lende. I look at photographers who inspire me. I also make a point of visiting art galleries whenever I can.

Photography is not even 200 years old as an art form. Much of the techniques we use as photographers have been learned from the painters and artists of old. Spend time looking at the composition of master painters. Look at how they placed subjects in their scene. See how the light works in their paintings, is it hard light or soft light? Spend time taking note of how they used color and shapes in their images. Then, go out and apply that to your photographs. Over time you will begin to see your eye and your images improve.

Visual Flow - How to Get the Most out of Composition

Work hard at improving your compositional eye.

The post Visual Flow – How to Get the Most out of Composition by Barry J Brady appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Feb
15

5 Simple Techniques for Leading the Viewer’s Eye in Your Images

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

As photographers, it’s easy for us to make conscious composition choices that allow us to balance our photographs or to create harmony within them. It’s is more difficult however to try and lead viewers through your photographs. We rarely consider how to influence the viewers of our photographs. When composing images, we don’t think about the different elements in our images and the order by which we want viewers to see those elements.

This is a common tactic in classic painting, but not used readily by photographers. The reality is it’s hard to influence viewers and to dictate the ways in which they view our photographs.

The lines of the creek lead the viewer’s eye through and into the image.

In many cases, the subject matter we are shooting just happens too fast for us to consciously compose images with the intention of leading the viewer through our photographs. It’s much easier to lead the eye through images we construct like still life or landscape photos. In the case of sports photography, this would only happen by sheer luck or happy accident. But when you have the opportunity, think about using techniques that lead viewers to specific parts of your images.

#1 – Use a brightness gradient

One of my favorite techniques for leading the eye is to use a brightness gradient. The human eye is drawn to the brighter elements, and if you position an area of brightness within your image, the eye will be drawn to that location.

It is important, however, to remember that the key to this technique is to use a gradient of brightness. Small bright areas amidst darker tones will not achieve the same kind of effect. The idea is to make the progression of highlights subtle, like a path through your image. Of course, this technique will not be possible in all situations but if it’s available considering using this method.

5 Simple Techniques for Leading the Viewer's Eye in Your Images

Shot from a kayak during sunrise I wasn’t intending to shoot this image with a brightness gradient. Instead, it’s a happy accident.

#2 – Linear perspective

When using a wide angle lens, you can consciously create linear perspective within images. This technique might be one of the more easily attainable methods of leading the eye. The wide angle lens will exaggerate lines and lead the eye fairly directly through the photograph. You can compose your photographs in such a way that buildings or other architectural features draw viewers through your photograph.

5 Simple Techniques for Leading the Viewer's Eye in Your Images

The line of lights and the line of buildings lead the eye through the photo. The viewer should be stopped by the bright spots of light within the image but then continue on through the rest of the photograph.

I’ve added some arrows to this image so you can see how the lines of the pier point the viewer into the photograph. The teenager in the image is a second way of directing the eye as he stops to view the sunset.

 

#3 – Use shafts of light

Using shafts of light is another technique for pointing viewers in the right direction. The conditions are very specific, and shafts of light are not always readily available, but they can be a useful tool for pointing out specific directions or objects within a photograph.

The photograph below was taken by my son. His plan when composing was to have the ray of light point towards the people. I must admit I didn’t think of composing in such a manner and when I asked him later he said it was “the natural choice”. Since that time I’ve made conscious decisions to look for and incorporate rays of light into my images.

5 Simple Techniques for Leading the Viewer's Eye in Your Images

There’s a fairly strong lens flare in this image but my son made a conscious choice in how he composed his photograph and I’m proud of him for his decisions.

#4 – Use a blur gradient

Using a blur gradient (shallow depth of field) is another method of leading the eye. I will admit that I don’t use this technique much. I even struggled to find images to use as examples for the article. Part of my reasoning is that I hope I will now be forced to experiment more with this technique.

Using a focus gradient can lead the eye to the important elements of the photograph. Setting up a shot in which the foreground is blurred and slowly recedes through the image to the point of sharp focus will draw viewers to specific objects within the frame.

I used a fairly large aperture here and while the blur gradient isn’t as obvious it is still present in the image.

#5 – Use more than one technique

You can also combine these techniques to help influence eye movement throughout your images. In these two images, the eye moves through the image the light gradient is the most obvious technique but lines of architecture within the building help to draw the viewer down the tunnel. The lights hanging at the top of the image are an obvious line that directs the eye.

Similarly, this image of the couple walking through the image adds to the movement within the photograph. The lines of the path reinforce the direction the viewer should take within the image.

Shot at a provincial park this image combines elements like linear perspective and vectors.

Conclusion

Leading the eye through a photograph is not an exact science. You can’t force viewers to follow the path you set for them. Each person approaches the artwork in different ways. If your use some of the techniques outlined here, it will help you to create compelling compositions. The more thought and purpose we put into creating our images the better they will be. While there may not always be time to use these techniques, it’s always handy to keep them in the back of your mind and use them when the time is right.

The more thought and purpose you put into creating your images the better they will be. While there may not always be time to use these techniques, it’s handy to keep them in the back of your mind and use them when the time is right.

The eye-leading techniques used in this image are a little harder to spot. I used the lines of the barrels and rays of light to direct the viewer’s eye into the center of the image.

The post 5 Simple Techniques for Leading the Viewer’s Eye in Your Images by Erin Fitzgibbon appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Jan
30

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

Last month I sat down and reread Michael Freeman’s book, “The Photographer’s Mind.” which I do occasionally. I find that by revisiting the words of other photographers I remind myself of the multitude of tools available to us. There’s so much we can do to create fresh and amazing photographs.

One of those ways is to push our skills and update our thinking. I think I’ve read through Freeman’s book about two or three times now. Every few years I take it off the shelf again. His books are insightful and interesting to read. Freeman offers up unique ideas for composition using both conventional and unconventional techniques. The books are readily available. You can also check out our review of one of Freeman’s other books here; “The Photographer’s Eye”. In this article, let’s journey through one of the concepts he discusses in his book, “Engineered Disorder”.

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

The details of the image are broken up into sections by the heavy shadows.

What is Engineered Disorder?

Freeman explains that Engineered Disorder is the active effort of a photographer to use non-conventional methods of composing photographs. Essentially, we are breaking the rules to create interesting images. Engineered Disorder means that we forget about conventional methods like unifying elements within the frame. We might allow ourselves to create uncluttered compositions. In one chapter Freeman talks about different methods of creating Engineered Disorder and bucking the system. He mentions using techniques such as disconnects, disruptive foreground, breaking the frame, superimposed layers and extremes of contrast. Maybe these terms sound complicated and a little too complex to understand, but they don’t have to be.

Let’s break down one of these techniques and see what’s involved in creating Engineered Disorder. We will discuss the use of extreme lighting or chiaroscuro to create disconnect within an image. It’s one of my favorite techniques. I love to include deep blacks and bright highlights in my compositions.

Chiaroscuro

Chiaroscuro – chi·a·ro·scu·ro – the treatment of light and shade in drawing, painting, and photography.

Using this technique means that we employ very hard lighting to break up the unity of a composition. The image becomes a series of pieces that communicate meaning but are broken up by dark shadows and bright highlights. Conventional composition techniques would say that using this type of technique makes for a bad photograph, but remember we are pushing the elements of composition.

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

The strong shadows in this image hide some details from the viewer. The leaf can only be viewed in pieces. This means a viewer has to pause and take in each part of the image separately and then piece together the whole scene. Making a viewer stop and study your image is important. Given the number of photographs out there you want to make viewers take some time to digest your images rather than scan through and move on. 

 

Experimenting with dark and light

Consider my careful experimentation with Chiaroscuro. This image portrays the common Canada goose in a much more unique fashion. In the opening moments of golden hours, these geese become elegant shadows. The different sections of light and dark create interesting graphic qualities within the image.

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

In this second image, I’ve used auto tone to create a more conventional image. While the actual shot is very similar, these two different treatments create considerably different photographs. Which one do you prefer?

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

A more conventional exposure.

Other examples

Here’s another example of Chiaroscuro. This is a photograph of a unique area near my home. Everyone calls this place The Badlands. The red and gray clay create these beautiful graphic designs which draw visitors to the area. The hills are in danger of being destroyed by visitors, but the area is truly beautiful. The shadows and the light create beautiful diagonal lines in this particular image.

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

This are is now off limits to visitors because of the damage caused by walking on the hills.

In this final image, the light and darks highlight different circular objects. Perhaps this image isn’t as disconnected as the others but it still presents a unique treatment for the door of a fishing boat. The image focuses on graphic design elements of the boat rather than the uses of the vessel. The image has been turned into an abstract and most viewers will need to analyze the image before they can determine the exact subject matter.

An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos

Conclusion – your turn

Experimenting with different techniques is never a bad thing. You can learn and improve your photos by playing with unconventional techniques. Creating these images certainly pushed the dynamic capabilities of my camera. Exposing for deep shadows can be a challenge all on its own, but it’s a lot of fun to try out these different techniques.

While we’ve only discussed one of the methods for creating Engineered Disorder, these three examples clearly highlight the technique. It’s better to fully understand just one compositional method rather than scratching the surface of several techniques. Give it a try, and go a little bit extreme. Break away from the conventional and search for ways to compose images that harness the power of Engineered Disorder in your photography. Please share your results in the comments below.

The post An Unconventional Composition Technique to Improve Your Photos by Erin Fitzgibbon appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Dec
22

7 Tips – How to Add Depth and Dimension into Your Photos

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

Photographers have the same dilemma that painters have faced for centuries – how to show a three-dimensional subject in a two-dimensional frame. When you add depth it helps create a sense of place and draw the viewer into your images. It also shows a deeper understanding of the principles of composition in photography.

The techniques and tips listed in this article will help you convey a stronger sense of depth in your photos.

1. Use leading lines

One of the easiest ways to convey depth in an image is to use a wide-angle lens and include lines that move from the bottom of the frame to the top. This technique is used mainly in landscape and architectural photos.

how to add depth and dimension in composition

The lines don’t have to be obvious. Take this photo as an example.

The rocks form natural lines that lead the eye from the foreground to the island on the horizon.

how to add depth and dimension in composition leading lines

In the image below, the waterways in the middle distance take the eye through the photo to the distant mountains. They are meandering, rather than straight, which helps give the image a more organic feel that fits well with the theme of landscape.

how to add depth and dimension in composition

2. Use perspective

This photo demonstrates how lines can add depth in a different way.

how to add depth and dimension in composition - perspective

The buildings form converging lines that disappear towards the horizon, creating a sense of depth very effectively. This technique is similar to an artist’s use of perspective. I’ve added lines so you can see how it works.

how to add depth and dimension in composition - perspective

3. Think foreground, middle ground, and background

Most photographers are familiar with the rule of thirds, but when it comes to conveying a sense of depth it is helpful to break the photo up into a different set of thirds – the foreground, middle ground, and background. What you’re looking for is a way of connecting the three that pulls the eye through the photo. Having three distinct zones in the image helps create a sense of depth, three dimensionality.

Leading lines are one way of doing this, but lines are not always present in a scene. When that happens you need to look for something else. Often, that simply means including something interesting in the foreground.

For example, in this photo, there are some buildings in the background, a concrete jetty in the middle, and the edge of another jetty in the foreground. I included the last one deliberately to help create a sense of depth.

how to add depth and dimension in composition

Here’s another example below. Including the rocks in the foreground creates a composition with three distinct zones (foreground, middle ground, and background) that the eye moves through, creating depth in the image. It helps that the wide-angle lens that was used makes the rocks seem quite large in comparison to the distant cliffs.

Depth and composition

4. Use aerial perspective

Another technique that helps convey a sense of depth is aerial (or atmospheric) perspective. This is where the atmospheric conditions make things in the distance appear hazy. When you see this occur, it is a good idea to see if you can find a way to include it in your composition. In this photo, taken in Beijing, you can see that the trees in the distance on the left side are obscured by atmospheric haze.

how to add depth and dimension in composition  - aerial perspective

This is reinforced by the converging lines formed by the walls. The two techniques are working together to show depth in the image.

how to add depth and dimension in composition  - aerial perspective and lines

5. Shoot through something

The techniques explored so far work best with wide-angle lenses. The nature of a telephoto lens is that it puts distance between you and the subject, which leads to a flatter perspective that doesn’t show depth as well as a wide-angle lens. But there are different techniques you can use with telephoto lenses to create a sensation of depth.

One method is to shoot through something that is between you and the subject. In the photo below, the subject is the setting sun. I shot through grass (and focused on the grass, throwing the sun slightly out of focus) to add a sense of depth to what otherwise could have been a very flat image.

how to add depth and dimension in composition  - telephoto

The photo also makes a good use of another technique, including shadows in the frame, to reinforce the depth.

You can also use this technique with portraits. I created the portrait below by shooting through the branches of a tree.

Depth and composition

6. Use selective focus

Both of the photos shown for the previous technique also use selective focus. That’s where you deliberately set a narrow aperture and focus on the subject, throwing the background out of focus. It’s especially effective with portraits, as the blurred background helps separate the model from the background, in turn creating a sense of depth. The following portrait was taken at f/2.0 with the lens focused on the model’s eyes.

Depth and composition

7. Convey depth through color

It’s also useful to think about what happens to colors in the background when you use a telephoto lens with a narrow aperture to make a portrait. When the background is out of focus, colors merge into each other. A good contrast between the colors in the background and those the model is wearing also helps convey depth.

For example, in the next portrait the use of color is very subtle. The background is nearly white, without any distracting colors. It is out of focus and doesn’t distract from the model’s face. His sweater is the most colorful part of the photo, and helps separate him from the background.

Depth and composition

You can take this idea to its extreme by using off-camera flash fitted with an orange gel. When you do this, the model is lit by orange light (from the gelled flash), but the background is lit by colder ambient light. This technique works well at dusk when the ambient light has a natural blue color.

In the example below, the model was lit by single Speedlite fitted with a 60cm softbox and a CTO (Color Temperature Orange) gel.

Depth and composition

Your turn

These seven tips should help you create stronger photos with more depth. What other ideas do you have for creating and adding depth into your photos? Please let us know in the comments below.


If you enjoyed this article and would like to learn more about composition then please check out my ebook Mastering Composition.

The post 7 Tips – How to Add Depth and Dimension into Your Photos by Andrew S. Gibson appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Nov
6

How to Create Stronger Photos by Working the Subject

Filed Under Composition Tips, Digital Photography School, Photography Tips and Tutorials

One way to create better compositions, and thus stronger images, is to do something called working the subject. Generally speaking, there are two ways to approach taking photos. Let’s take a look at both, and how you can learn to work the subject to improve your photography.

The first is to take as many photos as you can, in the hope that some of them turn out well. This is called machine-gunning, or spray and pray. It’s easier to do with digital cameras than it ever was with film cameras, as you are no longer limited by the number of frames on a roll of film.

Working the subject

Incidentally, this is one of the reasons often cited as a benefit of using film cameras. Knowing that every time you press the shutter button it adds to the cost of the shoot (processing plus film) is a good incentive to be more intentional and think carefully before you take a photo.

The second way is to take plenty of photos, but in a way that is more purposeful. The idea is to think about what you are doing and spend your time exploring the possibilities and potential of the subject. This is called working the subject.

Try new photography techniques

The dividing line between the two methods is sometimes a thin one. An example of this may be when you are trying a new technique, such as panning. Panning is a bit of a hit and miss technique. If you’ve chosen a good subject you should create some interesting photos, but you’re also going to get a lot of misses along the way.

The difference in this situation is that the photographer who is working the subject looks at the photos they have taken already, evaluates what works and what doesn’t, and adjusts their techniques and camera settings accordingly.

Another way of looking at it is that they are using the earlier photos as stepping stones to get to the more interesting images. A photographer who is machine-gunning, on the other hand, doesn’t think a lot about what they are doing and relies on serendipity rather than their own skill.

This is where the instant feedback of digital cameras is a useful tool for learning and improving.

Panning in Spain

Let me illustrate the point with some photos I made in Spain. I stood in the sea at sunset and panned with my camera as the waves came by. I took a lot of photos, and these are some of my favorites.

working-subject-1

Working the subject

Working the subject

These images were created by working the subject. Doing so helped me figure out where to stand, what angle to use, how slowly to pan the camera, and the best shutter speed to use.

Photographing an old car

Working the subject doesn’t necessarily mean that you take lots of photos. Let me give you an example.

I bought a Fuji X-Pro 1 camera a couple of years ago and took it out one evening at dusk with the intention of shooting at high ISO in low light to see how it performed (the answer – very well). As I was walking around my local neighborhood I noticed an interesting car parked on the street. Intrigued (and wondering how a Lada ended up in New Zealand) I took this photo.

Working the subject

It’s nothing special, but I knew there was a better picture there. I kept looking and realized that what had really caught my eye was the way the light from the street lamp reflected off the roof of the car. So, I moved in closer and created the following images. They all contain the reflection of the street lamp and just part of the car rather than all of it.

Working the subject

Working the subject

Working the subject

Then I took another photo of the rear of the car.

Working the subject

Analysis of the shoot

I only made five photos, but I was still working the subject. When I break it down and think about what happened the process went something like this.

  1. I saw something interesting and took a photo. That was just my first impression. My gut feeling told me that there was a better photo to be had.
  2. I looked closely until I realized that the real subject, the thing that really interested me, was the way the street light was reflected in the car’s paintwork. So, I moved in close and made several photos that showed that.
  3. Lastly, I moved away from the car and took another photo, which was okay but not as good as the others. I understood that I had gotten what I wanted and decided to move on to look for another subject.

The last point is crucial because one of the differences between working the subject and machine-gunning is that the photographer who is working the subject knows when to stop.

Working the subject in China

Here’s another set of images taken in Beijing. We were visiting a historic site called Prince Gong’s Mansion, made up of a series of interconnected buildings, courtyards, and gardens.

One of the courtyards contained some Tibetan style prayer wheels. I noticed that as people walked into the courtyard most of them passed by the prayer wheels, turning them as they went. I stood nearby and took some candid portraits of people doing so.

Working the subject

Of course, some of the photos are better than others, and I’m going to show you some of my favorites below. But there were also many times that I looked at the scene through the viewfinder and it wasn’t quite right, so I didn’t press the shutter.

One benefit of this method is that you don’t have as many photos to sort through and edit afterward. But it also shows discipline and an awareness of the subject. A machine-gunning photographer would take photos of everyone, without thinking about it much.

The photographer who is working the subject, and being more purposeful, is thinking about how to make each photo better than the one before. They may also be thinking about how the images are going to work together, or whether they should use a different technique, a different lens, or find a different point of view to add variety to the sequence of photos.

Working the subject

Conclusion

One of the key steps involved in learning to be a better and more creative photographer is knowing when to work the subject rather than machine-gun, and become more purposeful and intentional in your approach to making photos.

Can you think of any other examples of when working the subject can help you to create better images? Please let us know in the comments below.


Mastering Composition

If you’d like to learn more about composition then please check out my ebook Mastering Composition: A Photographer’s Guide to Seeing.

The post How to Create Stronger Photos by Working the Subject by Andrew S. Gibson appeared first on Digital Photography School.