How to Find and Use Natural Reflectors for Portraits

Natural light is one of the simplest ways to create beautifully lit portraits, without having too much equipment or worrying about setting up extra gear. However, it limits beautiful light to certain hours of the day and for you to work in the shade. This is where finding and using natural reflectors comes into play.

With natural light reflectors, you can photograph at any time of the day without having to carry any extra gear. It’s really easy to find and use to help give your portraits that extra boost of light.

Natural light reflector for portraits

Here we can see that the natural reflector is the path at the park.

What is a natural reflector?

A natural reflector is using already built-in or found materials to bounce light back onto your subject. This rids you of having to carry more equipment on location. 

It also helps immensely when you are photographing your subject during not so great hours of the day, like say, noon. When the light is harsh, it makes for great big natural reflectors to bounce that light back onto your subject.

Natural reflector for portraits

In this portrait, the subject is in direct sunlight at midday and the pavement helped to bounce light back onto her face.

Natural reflectors can come in many different forms, the most useful are big light-colored walls, the pavement, buildings with silver or light colored walls, white/silver cars in parking lots, mirrors, windows, even your white t-shirt. 

They are all found naturally occurring on location and all of them bounce light back onto your subject.

Natural light reflectors for portraits

This family is being lit by the sidewalk as a natural reflector, bouncing light back onto their faces.

The bigger your reflector, the more dispersed and diffused (soft) the light will be. Keep this in mind when photographing big groups or families, as you want the light to be evenly spread over all of your subjects’ faces.

How to use a natural light reflector

Natural reflectors are used a lot like real man-made or handheld reflectors. Position your subject in front of the natural reflector, for example, a large white wall. 

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

The sidewalk directly in front of this couple is naturally reflecting light back onto their faces. The natural light reflector is large and therefore disperses light evenly on both of them.

Parking garages make for great portrait locations, especially for headshots. Make sure to position your subject behind the edge of where the sun is hitting the pavement and the shadowed area. This will keep the lighting on your subject even while maintaining an even background as well.

Using buildings is also a great way to reflect light on to your subject and compete with the sun, offering a different style of portraits. As light is reflected off a big silver wall, the light reflected creates more drama. Adding to the overall effect of your photographs!

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

The silver paneling on the building serves as a natural reflector competing with the sun in the background.

If you are out in a field or more of an open space, you can still find natural reflectors. Fields reflect a beautiful golden hue as does the sand on the beach when the sun is brightest.

Natural reflectors can also add a little more drama to your photos if you use them strategically. Placing your subject away from the light can create interesting shadows. Same with reflectors below your subject. Experiment to see which types of natural reflectors work best for you.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Here the light reflected creates a little bit of drama in the portraits of this young man.

Best time for natural light reflectors

The best time to use natural reflectors is anytime the sun is shining bright! 

On cloudy days you may get some bright light, but when the sun is out, that is the best time for maximum reflection. It’s a good rule of thumb to go to the portrait location before your session and observe when is the best time and which natural reflectors will be useful.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits - maternity portraits in natural light

Use natural light reflectors in both brightly lit backgrounds or in shaded areas.

To get the most out of a natural reflector, it’s best to photograph your subject between 11 am and 2 pm so that the sun hits these natural reflectors evenly and you can move your subject around to get the best background, angle, and of course, lighting.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Fields are great for naturally reflecting onto your subject’s face during a session.

If you are photographing in a cityscape or urban area with a lot of buildings, the best time is a couple of hours before sunset. The sun will reflect against the windows of buildings and offer the best strength. 

Don’t stop photographing though. You’ll want to catch the sunset reflecting in the windows as well after the sun goes down a little.

beach family portrait - How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Using the sand as a natural light reflector is a perfect way to evenly light your subjects at the beach.

Another example of beach photos and using the sand as a natural reflector.

You can also become a natural reflector

Wearing white can bounce some much-needed light off you and back to your subject if you need a bit more light. A simple white t-shirt can do the trick and give you a little boost of light. It especially makes for great catchlights in your subject’s eyes.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Using white can help reflect light. Take precaution when photographing in really bright sunlight as it can sometimes wash out details in the shirts. However, if you use a white shirt, it has the same effect of bouncing light.

White shirts can give your subject a soft dewy look. Just be mindful that you will have to be relatively close to your subject so that enough light can bounce back onto the subject’s face.

In conclusion

portrait of a girl - How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

When you’re photographing in natural light, these natural reflectors can help make for interesting, beautifully lit portraits of your subjects. The boost of light can get you out of shaded areas and allow you to shoot at all hours of the day without having to carry additional gear other than your camera. 

Have fun and experiment with different types of natural reflectors to add drama to your portraits.

The post How to Find and Use Natural Reflectors for Portraits appeared first on Digital Photography School.

How to Find and Use Natural Reflectors for Portraits

Natural light is one of the simplest ways to create beautifully lit portraits, without having too much equipment or worrying about setting up extra gear. However, it limits beautiful light to certain hours of the day and for you to work in the shade. This is where finding and using natural reflectors comes into play.

With natural light reflectors, you can photograph at any time of the day without having to carry any extra gear. It’s really easy to find and use to help give your portraits that extra boost of light.

Natural light reflector for portraits

Here we can see that the natural reflector is the path at the park.

What is a natural reflector?

A natural reflector is using already built-in or found materials to bounce light back onto your subject. This rids you of having to carry more equipment on location. 

It also helps immensely when you are photographing your subject during not so great hours of the day, like say, noon. When the light is harsh, it makes for great big natural reflectors to bounce that light back onto your subject.

Natural reflector for portraits

In this portrait, the subject is in direct sunlight at midday and the pavement helped to bounce light back onto her face.

Natural reflectors can come in many different forms, the most useful are big light-colored walls, the pavement, buildings with silver or light colored walls, white/silver cars in parking lots, mirrors, windows, even your white t-shirt. 

They are all found naturally occurring on location and all of them bounce light back onto your subject.

Natural light reflectors for portraits

This family is being lit by the sidewalk as a natural reflector, bouncing light back onto their faces.

The bigger your reflector, the more dispersed and diffused (soft) the light will be. Keep this in mind when photographing big groups or families, as you want the light to be evenly spread over all of your subjects’ faces.

How to use a natural light reflector

Natural reflectors are used a lot like real man-made or handheld reflectors. Position your subject in front of the natural reflector, for example, a large white wall. 

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

The sidewalk directly in front of this couple is naturally reflecting light back onto their faces. The natural light reflector is large and therefore disperses light evenly on both of them.

Parking garages make for great portrait locations, especially for headshots. Make sure to position your subject behind the edge of where the sun is hitting the pavement and the shadowed area. This will keep the lighting on your subject even while maintaining an even background as well.

Using buildings is also a great way to reflect light on to your subject and compete with the sun, offering a different style of portraits. As light is reflected off a big silver wall, the light reflected creates more drama. Adding to the overall effect of your photographs!

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

The silver paneling on the building serves as a natural reflector competing with the sun in the background.

If you are out in a field or more of an open space, you can still find natural reflectors. Fields reflect a beautiful golden hue as does the sand on the beach when the sun is brightest.

Natural reflectors can also add a little more drama to your photos if you use them strategically. Placing your subject away from the light can create interesting shadows. Same with reflectors below your subject. Experiment to see which types of natural reflectors work best for you.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Here the light reflected creates a little bit of drama in the portraits of this young man.

Best time for natural light reflectors

The best time to use natural reflectors is anytime the sun is shining bright! 

On cloudy days you may get some bright light, but when the sun is out, that is the best time for maximum reflection. It’s a good rule of thumb to go to the portrait location before your session and observe when is the best time and which natural reflectors will be useful.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits - maternity portraits in natural light

Use natural light reflectors in both brightly lit backgrounds or in shaded areas.

To get the most out of a natural reflector, it’s best to photograph your subject between 11 am and 2 pm so that the sun hits these natural reflectors evenly and you can move your subject around to get the best background, angle, and of course, lighting.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Fields are great for naturally reflecting onto your subject’s face during a session.

If you are photographing in a cityscape or urban area with a lot of buildings, the best time is a couple of hours before sunset. The sun will reflect against the windows of buildings and offer the best strength. 

Don’t stop photographing though. You’ll want to catch the sunset reflecting in the windows as well after the sun goes down a little.

beach family portrait - How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Using the sand as a natural light reflector is a perfect way to evenly light your subjects at the beach.

Another example of beach photos and using the sand as a natural reflector.

You can also become a natural reflector

Wearing white can bounce some much-needed light off you and back to your subject if you need a bit more light. A simple white t-shirt can do the trick and give you a little boost of light. It especially makes for great catchlights in your subject’s eyes.

How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

Using white can help reflect light. Take precaution when photographing in really bright sunlight as it can sometimes wash out details in the shirts. However, if you use a white shirt, it has the same effect of bouncing light.

White shirts can give your subject a soft dewy look. Just be mindful that you will have to be relatively close to your subject so that enough light can bounce back onto the subject’s face.

In conclusion

portrait of a girl - How to Find and Use Natural Light Reflectors for Portraits

When you’re photographing in natural light, these natural reflectors can help make for interesting, beautifully lit portraits of your subjects. The boost of light can get you out of shaded areas and allow you to shoot at all hours of the day without having to carry additional gear other than your camera. 

Have fun and experiment with different types of natural reflectors to add drama to your portraits.

The post How to Find and Use Natural Reflectors for Portraits appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Adobe is now making ‘Lightroom Coffee Break’ videos for Lightroom CC

For a while now, the official Adobe Photoshop Lightroom YouTube channel has produced a series titled ‘Lightroom Coffee Break.’ The collection of videos provides quick (~60 seconds) tips on how to make the most of Lightroom, and after 56 episodes, the creators have finally started to include tips specifically for Adobe’s cloud-centric Lightroom CC.

Until now, all of the videos have been based on Lightroom Classic CC. Now, the minute-long videos will include tips and tricks specifically created for Lightroom CC users—a welcomed change considering it’s becoming the go-to choice for many photographers, and there aren't a lot of resources out there as of right now.

The first video, presented by Lightroom team members Michelle Wei and Josh Haftel, details how easy it is to salvage an underexposed Raw photograph using only four sliders: exposure, highlights, shadows, and contrast. It might seem a bit basic, but you can count on future episodes to dive into more complicated adjustments.

Even though Adobe is just now getting around to making tutorials specifically for Lightroom CC, many of the previous videos made for Lightroom Classic CC still apply, so take some time and look at the archive. At one minute each, you could get through all 57 episodes in an hour—less time than it takes to watch an episode of Game of Thrones.

And if you want to keep up with future videos, be sure to subscribe to the Adobe Photoshop Lightroom YouTube channel.

GIMP 2.10.0 released: Features 32-bit support, new UI and more

Open-source image editor GIMP has been updated to version 2.10.0, its first major update in six years. In this new version, GIMP has been "nearly" fully ported to the GEGL image processing engine, which brings support for up to 32-bit images, multi-threaded processing, and optional GPU-side processing for systems with stable OpenCL drivers.

According to the team, GIMP 2.10.0 uses GEGL for all of its tile management and to build an acyclic graph for each project. That satisfies the prerequisites for eventually adding non-destructive editing, a future feature slated for version 3.2.

The new image processing engine aside, GIMP 2.10 brings an updated UI with a new default dark theme; the symbolic icons are also now enabled by default. This gives users a total of four theme option: Dark, Light, Gray, and System. However, themes and icons have been separated so that users can choose them independently for better customization.

Additionally, there are now four icon sizes to improve their look on HiDPI displays. The software automatically detects the best size for the display; however, since it may not always be accurate, users can manually change the size if necessary.

Many new features and improvements, as well as expanded support, have arrived in 2.10.0—complete details of the changes are available in the full release notes. Notable among the changes is support for multiple new formats (including OpenEXR, WebP, RGBE, and HGT) on-canvas previews for filters ported to GEGL, improved warp tools, color management has been revamped as a core feature, and the digital painting experience has been enhanced.

GIMP 2.10.0 can be downloaded now for Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, and Solaris.

DxO Labs confirms bankruptcy, but promises updates to Nik Collection and DxO PhotoLab

DxO Labs has released an official update on its financial situation in the form of a blog post on its website, and it’s not as doom-and-gloom as it seems... or sounds. While the statement confirms DxO Labs has chosen "to file for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection and is now in the process of restructuring the business," it also says the restructuring "will not affect our customers in any way."

In fact, DxO Labs says the process should take no more than a few weeks to complete. And not only should this news "not affect customers," DxO Labs took the opportunity to confirm that a couple of new products are on the horizon.

According to the statement, DXO Labs plans to release a free update (version 1.2) to its flagship program DxO PhotoLab sometime in June. The update will add improved local correction features and support for seen new cameras ‘including the Canon EOS 2000D and the Sony A7 III.’

In a quick swipe at Adobe, DxO writes that this impending update will serve as:

...an opportunity for us to reiterate our commitment to the 'perpetual license' model (as opposed to a subscription model) that allows our customers to update their products according to their needs, rather than in a constrained manner.

And if that's not enough good news to distract you from the Chapter 11 talk, DxO Labs also confirmed plans to update the Nik Software Collection.

In June, the Nik Software Collection will receive its first update since being bought from Google in December of 2017. The update is said to focus on fixing bugs and to make sure the plug-ins and standalone programs work smoothly on both PC and MacOS computers.

Official Statement:

Greetings,

On March 7, 2018, DxO Labs chose to file for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection and is now in the process of restructuring the business.

We are very confident that this procedure, which should not last for more than a few more weeks, will not affect our customers in any way. In fact, we are pleased to announce the following upcoming product releases:

  • In June, we will release a free update (version 1.2) of our flagship software, DxO PhotoLab. Recently awarded the TIPA 2018 Award for Best Image Processing Software, this latest version of DxO PhotoLab will include improved local correction features, and will add support for 7 cameras, including the Canon EOS 2000D and the Sony A7 III. This release will also be an opportunity for us to reiterate our commitment to the “perpetual license” model (as opposed to a subscription model) that allows our customers to update their products according to their needs, rather than in a constrained manner.
  • In June, we will release the new version of the Nik Software Collection, which DxO acquired from Google at the end of 2017. Much awaited by the Nik software community, this first “by DxO” version focuses on fixing bugs that up until now could disrupt the user experience, as well as on ensuring full compatibility with the latest Mac OS and PC platforms.

Thank you for your understanding and confidence,

The DxO Team

Instagram currently testing slow-motion video and mute features

Credit: Luke van Zyl

Instagram may be getting a few new features in the near future. As originally reported by The Verge, Twitter user Jane Manchun Wong (@wongmjane) managed to dig up a few interface changes that suggest new functionality is on the way.

Wong, a computer science major at UMass Dartmouth, came across the unreleased features by digging through the code in the Android version of the Instagram app. The two most significant features to be revealed are a new mute function, and the ability to shoot slow-motion video directly inside Instagram, shown below in screenshots from Wong’s Twitter.

The mute function would presumably work in the same way Twitter’s own mute button: effectively removing all content from a profile without the need to unfollow them. No need to unfollow that annoying friend who you want to keep up with, but whose photos you're patently sick of.

Great way to save friendships and your sanity at the same time.

The slow-mo mode appears to be available only within the Stories section of Instagram, but it’s definitely possible we'll see it as an integrated option within the standard video capture section as well. It’s unknown whether or not this would work with all devices or only on mobile devices that natively support slow-mo video capture.

In a statement to The Verge, an Instagram spokesperson said the company didn't "have anything to share on this right now." Not a confirmation, sure, but not a flat denial either—something Instagram has done when rumored features get out of hand.

These new features might never see the light of day, but it’s not unlike Instagram to randomly test new features with random users before making them public.

Nikon manager confirms: New mirrorless system coming by spring 2019

Screen capture: Nikon Eye

In an interview with Japanese TV-channel NHK, a Nikon manager has confirmed the company's new mirrorless camera system will be on the market by spring 2019. This is the first time we have given an approximate launch date after Nikon officially confirmed it was developing a new system back in July 2017.

Unfortunately, additional details are still scarce. According to the latest rumors, the new lens mount will be called the Z-mount and come with an external diameter of 49mm and a flange focal distance of 16mm.

Given the Nikon Director of Development publicly stated that any new Nikon mirrorless system would have to be full-frame, there's good reason to assume the new cameras will indeed feature a full-frame sensor, putting Nikon in direct competition with Sony's A7/A9 series of mirrorless full-frame cameras.

Composition Checklist for Beginners

At a recent meetup with several photographers, during a discussion on composition, one of the beginners commented: “Why isn’t there a composition checklist for all the things we need to think about?” It was a good question and was the inspiration that prompted this article.

It’s not about the gear

You can have the most expensive camera gear and the most amazing light. You could be in a fabulous scenic location, or shooting a stunning model. There are many situations that might provide you with the opportunity to shoot breathtaking images, but if the composition is not spot on, then it doesn’t matter how fancy or expensive your gear is.

Composition Checklist for Beginners - flower blooming

The reverse is true also, you can craft amazing images with beginner grade gear (even your cell phone) if your understanding of composition is good. When you know the rules and guidelines, can work them to your advantage, and even push the barriers and be really creative. No one will care what gear you used to get the shot, they will go “Wow, you must have an amazing camera!”

Learn the composition basics

Even though there are many different kinds of photography, whether you do street, landscapes, macro, studio or anything else, there are a lot of basic composition concepts that apply. Not every concept will need to be considered for every image but having a good understanding of the basics will get you a long way.

Truly understanding composition was one of the major steps in my photography making a big step up in improvement. Like every new idea, you have to put some effort into learning the idea, practicing, learning from your mistakes and practicing again and again. When you can frame up a well-composed shot without consciously thinking about what you are doing and why then you can really start to think about new ways to frame and shape your images.

First, you have to master the basics.

roller derby - Composition Checklist for Beginners

Getting Started

First of all, these are not rules. While there are some guidelines you should consider when creating an aesthetically pleasing image, it is entirely possible to ignore them all and still make a stunning image. It is, however, a lot easier to do that when you know what the guidelines are first. So this is a list of concepts you should consider for each image, not rules you absolutely have to follow.

Some things are easy and obvious, or so you might think. Yet the number of images with noticeably crooked horizons you see posted online is a testament to the fact that this stuff is not always obvious, and is hard to learn. Be kind to yourself and take it in stages. Maybe even write your list down and carry it in your camera bag as a handy reminder.

Also, every image will have different elements in it, and different concepts will apply. So pick and choose the ones that work for you and the scene in front of you. As an example, there are things you would do when framing up a landscape that won’t apply when shooting street photography shots.

So be sensible, pick a few that make sense to you or that apply to the way you shoot. Then practice them until it’s like breathing – it just happens automatically when you pick up the camera and frame a shot. When you get to that stage, add some more concepts to your process, and absorb those the same way.

Composition Checklist

So here is the checklist of things to look for in your composition as a starting point.

  1. Is the horizon straight?
  2. Is the subject strong and obvious within the image?
  3. Are the edges of the frame clean? Is anything poking into the frame that distract the viewer? Are there elements of the image that lead the eye out of the frame that could be positioned better?
  4. Is the background clean – are there distracting elements like a car parked in the background, or a fence or a house that doesn’t fit? Can you move or change the angle to remove that element?
  5. Is the foreground tidy? Are you shooting a landscape or natural scene where there might be branches or leaves or twigs in the foreground that could be tidied away?
  6. The position of people in the shot. Do they have a lamp post or a tree growing out of the top of their head? Have you chopped heads, feet, arms, or legs off?
  7. Eye contact – when shooting a group of people, do we have eye contact with all your subjects?
  8. Camera position – are you at the right height/angle for the best composition?
  9. Point of focus – when taking photos of people/creatures/animals have you focused on the eye? Do you have a catchlight in the eye?
  10. Is the Rule of Thirds being used effectively?
  11. Do you have a sense of scale – particularly valid for large landscape scenes?
  12. How does the eye travel around the image? Where does it go first? Where does it end up? Is that the story you want to tell the viewer?
  13. Lens choice – does the lens you are using affect the composition in a positive or negative way? Would a different lens be worth considering?
  14. Less is more – what truly needs to be in the frame? What can you leave out?
  15. Is it sharp? Do you want it to be?

Considering Composition in More Detail

#1 – Is the horizon straight?

It would seem fairly easy to notice if the horizon is straight when you are taking a shot. It is also extremely easy to fix in post-processing, yet so many images are posted online that have crooked horizons, varying from a little bit to quite a lot. Our brains automatically hiccup when they encounter it, so it is a genuine composition issue that needs to be resolved.

You can take the time to set the camera up so it is completely level. When shooting a panorama, timelapse, video and similar things, it is worth the extra effort. For general purpose use, it can be easily edited in post-production.

tilted horizon example - Composition Checklist for Beginners

The horizon is about 3 degrees tilted down to the left – just enough to make your brain twitch.

#2 – Is the subject strong and obvious within the image?

There are some composition concepts that are fairly straightforward and obvious, like point #1 above. Then there are some that are more open to interpretation.

This point could be considered one of those things. However, I then propose this question to you. If the subject is not strong or obvious then how do we know what the point of your image is?

Composition Checklist for Beginners - green garden image

There are a lot of competing elements in this image, where do we start?

#3 – Are the edges of the frame clean?

Are there things poking into the frame that distract the viewer? Look for elements in the image which lead your eye out of the frame. Could they be positioned better?

Running your eye around the edge of the frame when composing your shot is a valuable step that can save you a lot of time. This is one lesson I personally had to learn the hard way and it applies to most general styles of photography.

Are there things poking into the frame from outside it that impose themselves on the image and distract the viewer? Are there blurry elements in the foreground that you could move or change your point of view to reduce their impact? Is there half a car or a building partially visible in the background perhaps?

Quite often when you are framing a shot, you are focused so intently on the subject, that you may neglect to see the whole image. So you may miss these extra details that can make or break the shot.

purple flower - Composition Checklist for Beginners

The extra leaf and bud in the top left corner are distracting.

#4 – Is the background clean?

Are there distracting elements like a car parked in the background, or a fence or a house that doesn’t fit? Can you move or change the camera angle to eliminate that element from the image?

This is an extra step on top of point #3 above – putting more effort into assessing the background.

Are you taking a nice landscape and there is a farm shed clearly visible? Perhaps there is a truck parked in the distance or a vehicle on the road you need to wait to move out of frame. Are the colors harmonious? Is the sky doing nice things? Is the sun a bit too bright in the clouds?

colonial mansion - Composition Checklist for Beginners

This lovely colonial mansion had a very modern hospital and school behind it and was difficult to frame it up to reduce those jarring elements.

#5 – Is the foreground tidy?

Are you shooting a landscape or natural scene? Are there branches, leaves, or twigs in the foreground that could be tidied away?

This is particularly relevant in nature and landscape photography, but still worth remembering in general.

Is what you have in the foreground adding to the image or distracting from the subject? Is there rubbish or stuff on the ground that looks messy? Are there twigs too close to the lens so they are blurry? Can you move any branches or things out of the way or do you need to change the angle of shooting instead?

Composition Checklist for Beginners - red mushroom

Look at all the mess of cones and twigs in the foreground, all blurry and untidy.

#6 – The position of people or the subject

Do any people in your image have lamp posts or a tree growing out of the top of their heads? Have you chopped heads, feet, arms, or legs off awkwardly?

Often a problem for posed outdoor shots, this is essentially a specific element of point #3 above – checking the background in relation to your subjects.

Is the camera straight, is the angle flattering? Are people squinting into the sun? Is the lighting good? Do you have all their body parts within the frame? Is everyone looking in the same direction or interacting in the desired manner?

cat photo - Composition Checklist for Beginners

His eyes are sharp but I cut his front paws off, not good.

#7 – Eye contact

When shooting a group of people, do we have eye contact with all the subjects?

Quite often when shooting people they will generally be looking at the camera. However, if some are and some are not, it has a weird kind of dissonance to the viewer. So make sure you have some way of engaging the people so they look at you and take several shots.

If worst comes to worst you can work some Photoshop magic to blend a few frames together if it’s a critical image.

Composition Checklist for Beginners

Notice they are not all looking at the camera.

#8 – Camera position

Are you at the right height and camera angle for the best composition?

Being at eye level with your subject makes a big difference to the feel of an image. When photographing people, the camera angle does have an effect on how flattering the shot might be to the subject.

You may want to push some creative boundaries and do something different for a particular scene. Street photography is one genre where the height and angle can directly impact the story you are telling.

On average most people tend to stand and shoot from that position, but what if you get down really low?  What if you find some stairs or some way to get higher up?  What if you shoot straight down on top of your subject rather than side on?

Start to think more creatively about how you use composition to evoke a mood or tell a story about a scene.

white swan - Composition Checklist for Beginners

This image works because I was flat on the shore at a similar height to the swan. Had I been standing you would not have seen the wonderful curve in the bird’s neck.

#9 – Point of focus

When taking photos of people, creatures or animals have you focused on their eyes? Do you have catchlight in the eyes?

If you have a subject with eyes in the image that is looking at the camera it is important to have the focus point on the eye. Faces of people, birds, and animals are very dimensional and it can be easy to get the focus point on the tip of the nose or forehead or somewhere else. So if you have a living creature looking at your camera, focus on their eye.

Another trick to make them look alive and engaged is to angle your shot so that there is some light reflected off the dark iris. This is called a catchlight and is important especially for animals and birds that have large dark eyes. Fashion photographers use fancy round beauty dish lights to give a distinctive ring effect in their shots.

Composition Checklist for Beginners - cat photo

The nose is sharp but the eyes are just a bit out of focus which is not desirable.

#10 – Is the Rule of Thirds being used?

While the Rule of Thirds is more of a guideline than a hard and fast rule, it is a good one for a beginner to take on board. It is easy to remember and does help you create a more dynamic and interesting image when used well.

So if you intend on using it, add it to your mental checklist.

birds - Composition Checklist for Beginners

The subject in this image is more or less in the middle, but if you crop it to use Rule of Thirds the image doesn’t work as well.

#11 – Do you have a sense of scale in your landscape scenes?

Big mountain vistas are lovely. But sometimes they can become bland and uninteresting because they lack a sense of scale to truly appreciate them.

One recommendation is that a foreground element can be used to both ground the image and provide scale for the big vista behind it. Some photographers like to use themselves as a prop to help add scale as well.

Composition Checklist for Beginners - man in landscape scene

#12 – How does the eye travel around the image?

Where does your eye go first? Where does it end up? Is that the story you want to tell the viewer?

What do you have in the image to engage the eye? Are there different elements or points the eye can travel around? Does it have contrast? Are there elements that lead the eye out of the image? Are there elements that lead the eye into or around an image?

spider web in a tree - Composition Checklist for Beginners

#13 – Lens choice

Does the lens you are using affect the composition in a positive or negative way? Would a different lens be worth considering?

This can cross the boundary between a technical consideration and a creative one. Sometimes there may be a valid reason to use a specific lens, a faraway subject likely to fly away demands the use of a long lens. A tiny flower might be better shot with a macro lens. Telephoto lenses compress the elements in an image, making them seem closer together. Wide angle lenses create a lot of distortion around the edges, especially at minimal focal lengths.

Beyond that are the creative choices. Yes, you could shoot the front of this house with a wide focal length, but what if you put a zoom on and highlighted the fancy door knocker or handle? Is the lens you are using giving a flattering look to the person you are shooting?

Composition Checklist for Beginners - large eagle wings spread

A different lens would have allowed me to zoom out far enough to get this entire bird in the frame *sigh*.

#14 – Less is more

What truly needs to be in the frame? What can you leave out?

A mistake a lot of beginners make is to include too many elements in an image. It can be cluttered, messy, and confusing as to the point of the image.

Sometimes that can be used to advantage in things like street photography, but usually, less is more. A strong obvious subject and minimal distraction around it is a very aesthetically pleasing combination but it can be difficult to learn how to frame images up this way.

Composition Checklist for Beginners - landscape scene

So much going on here, its a bit overwhelming with no clear subject. It’s a pretty scene but is the composition effective?

#15 – Is the image sharp?

Do you want it to be? Not every image need to be 100% sharp. You can use aperture to creative effect by selecting a narrow depth of field. ICM or Intentional Camera Movement adds blur and movement as well. Use of specialty lenses like those from Lensbaby gives you many different ways to add soft focus or special effects to enhance your image.

Many street shots have blurred movement and creative focus elements, either the photographer or the subject (or both) may be moving.

Some people insist that images be absolutely as sharp as they can be, but that is a creative choice up to you, the photographer.

Composition Checklist for Beginners - motion blur from moving water

A bit of slow shutter speed on the waves for a soft creative swirl effect.

Summary

Some of the items on the checklist are basic sensible things that apply to most images. Some are more advanced technical considerations. Others may only apply if you are considering trying some more creative approaches to your composition

There are many other specific technical concepts that are not covered in this composition checklist. When you are ready for them, you can find plenty of information here on dPS to guide you.

This list is designed to cover the most basic ideas and thoughts that a beginner might need to keep in mind when first starting to think about properly composing and framing up their images. Good news, if you have made the step to start making your images with deliberate intention, that means you already have your feet on the path to becoming a better photographer.

Pick a few key items from this composition checklist that apply to your style of photography and try to remember them deliberately everytime you shoot. Eventually, it will become so automatic, you adjust for them without thinking, your mental muscle memory will have kicked in.

Are there any key concepts you feel should be included in this list?  By all means, let me know in the comments below.

The post Composition Checklist for Beginners appeared first on Digital Photography School.

Crystal clear: Inside Nikon’s Hikari Glass factory

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Located about 375 miles north of Tokyo in the Akita Prefecture, the Hikari Glass factory is a special place. Opened back in the 1970s, Hikari Glass has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Nikon since 2004. If you shoot with Nikon lenses, the chances are good that they started life right here - as raw powdered glass.

The Akita Prefecture, home of Hikari Glass, lies around 375 miles north of Tokyo.

Nikon invited us to visit Hikari Glass following the CP+ 2018 show in Yokohama, and along with our friends Dave Etchells and William Brawley of Imaging Resource, we were among the first journalists ever allowed inside the facility. During our visit we saw virtually the entire process of glass-making, from raw powder to finished glass 'blanks', ready for shaping and polishing in Nikon's other facilities.

Click through this slideshow for a detailed look - please note that some areas of certain images are blurred at Nikon's request.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Akita and the surrounding area is blanketed with snow for several months a year. We visited on a relatively mild day, but as you can probably tell from the ice buildup on this building, 'mild' is a relative term.

Our tour guide, Akio Arai is the Corporate Vice President and Production General Manager of the Akita factory and has been with the company for 11 years. At present, almost all of the Hikari factory's output goes to satisfying Nikon's requirements for high-quality glass, but Mr Arai hopes that in future his facility will be in a position to supply even more glass to companies other than Nikon.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

This powder contains several different ingredients (the biggest portion being quartz, but the exact mix is secret) which are mixed, melted, and eventually turned into finished glass.

The combining of the raw material happens in batches of around 500kg (~1100 lb) in a pair of very large mixers. The precision achieved in the mixing process is somewhere in the region of 1 part to 50,000. It's vitally important that the mixture is exactly right, because Hikari is aiming for glass with a very specific refractive index.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

This tub of powder (roughly the size of a small hotel bathtub) is the raw material for Nikon's famed ED glass, used in a great many of the company's high-performance lenses. Hikari makes 125 different kinds of optical glass, including 20 types of 'specialty glass' for molded lens elements.

Once the powder has been mixed, it is melted. There are two types of melting process, depending on the types of glass. The simpler of the two is called 'direct melting', and the more complex is called 'pre-melting' and 'fine melting'. We watched the latter.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The pre-melting process begins with the raw powder being heated inside a quartz or platinum crucible (depending on the exact type of glass), in a furnace at a temperature of more than 1000 degrees Celsius. The furnaces are on platforms raised several feet above the factory floor. The mixture is added to the crucibles by machines very gradually. If all the powder were dumped in at once, only the surface of the mixture would melt.

With quartz crucibles, some of the quartz inevitably melts into the mixture. This is accounted for in the formula, but since they become thinner over time as the quartz melts, the crucibles have a limited lifespan - in some cases, this can be as short as two days. We weren't allowed to show the crucibles in this article, but the ones we were shown were roughly the size of a small domestic water boiler.

Once the glass is fully melted, a hole is opened into the bottom of the crucible to allow the molten glass to escape into a large tank of water, positioned underneath the furnace at floor level. That's what you can see in the image above.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

As the glass continues to drain, eventually the water that it's draining into becomes so hot that it starts to boil.

The remainder of the heated glass is drained into the tank, and once everything is cooled down, workers will assess whether or not the crucible in the furnace can be used again, or needs to be retired. In the old days, glass used to be melted in clay crucibles, and for every 2,500 kilos of glass, only about 500 kilos was usable. The modern method is far less wasteful.

A small water jet to the right of the stream of molten glass helps break the stream up into small droplets which cool to form what are called 'frit'.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

And here is the frit - they look like little flakes of snow, but that's where the similarity ends. In the pre-melting process, the frit aren't meant to have exactly the exact refractive qualities of the finished glass - it's still basically a raw material. And there's some variation in the flakes of frit, too. Depending on where the glass was positioned inside the crucible, the makeup of each frit might be slightly different (i.e., it might contain more or less quartz, thanks to the melting of the crucibles during the process).

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The frit is mixed in these giant machines (it's hard to get a sense of scale, but the fan on the far right is basically just a domestic room fan if that helps). If these look like modified and repurposed cement mixers, that's because they are.

One of the major modifications over a standard cement mixer is inside the drums, which are lined with natural rubber to prevent any metal particles from the mixer contaminating the glass.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Here's a closer view of the rubberized interior of the mixing drum. Any rubber particles that make it into the mix will burn off harmlessly in the next major process - 'fine melting'.

In order to hit exactly the right target refractive index for a particular kind of glass, Hikari prepares two batches of frit, one batch with a refractive index deliberately on one side of the target value, and one with a refractive index on the other. The two batches are then remixed and fine-melted together in just the right way to produce glass with the exact target refractive index value.

The direct melting process skips this pre-melting step, making it less time-consuming. The difficult part is that the glass must have exactly the right refractive index from the get-go, which requires absolute purity of the raw materials, and gives much less margin for fine-tuning.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The fine melting process is one of the two most critical stages in the entire glass-making process, and takes place in platinum crucibles inside very high-tech furnaces. The exact details of the fine melting furnaces (even their external appearance) are highly protected by Hikari Glass, and we weren't allowed to take photographs of them.

That's OK, because to the untrained eye they don't look like much anyway. More interesting is what they produce - long, long bars of glass, called ingots, which roll out from the machines very, very slowly on a very, very long conveyor belt in a process called 'casting'.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

A skilled worker marks and precisely breaks the cast ingot at specific intervals. This particular ingot is destined for use in Nikon lenses, while glass for prisms and other purposes are processed in a different building.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Once the ingot has been broken up into bars, each bar undergoes a quick inspection for any obvious major flaws or defects. If there is an apparent defect, these extruded glass bars are either recycled, if possible, or rejected.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The glass bars are further checked for any bubbles or unevenness in an adjoining room. This is most often done visually, using a lightbox. Bubbles show up as bright specs, and 'distortions' (areas of substantially different refractive index) show up as wrinkles in the image projected onto the screen (left).

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Here, a worker points out a defect in a demonstration bar of glass.

During the decades that Hikari Glass has been operating, optical technology has changed a lot, and so has the legislation governing substances like lead and arsenic, which used to be commonly used in glass manufacturing. Over the years, Hikari Glass has refined its processes accordingly.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

To ascertain the exact refractive qualities of a piece of glass, Hikari Glass technicians turn to machines. To measure refractive index, a small test block of glass is cut, and a special liquid with the expected refractive index is then painted onto the glass. Technicians then load the painted cube of glass into this machine and look for variations in light transmission as light is shone through.

As well as the 'final' glass cast from the fine-melting furnaces, these machines are used to establish the refractive index of test batches of glass made from the frit we saw earlier.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Once they've passed this quality control step, the bars of glass are split into slim rods, using heat. A heating coil warms the bar, and after a predetermined period of time, a small drop of cold water applied to the end of the bar causes it to split neatly in two with a very satisfying "pink" sound.

This bar has just been split into two rods - the bars to the right, in the background are awaiting their turn.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The glass rods are then cut into smaller...

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

...and smaller cubes, called 'dice' using a circular saw. You'll notice there's no glass dust anywhere to be seen in these images and that's because the 'saw' doesn't have a cutting surface (you could put your hand right on it, without any fear of injury). It works by friction - the spinning disc heats the glass at the point of contact, creating a clean break.

Each cube is slightly bigger than it ultimately needs to be, so that there's scope for its weight to be precisely adjusted in the next stage of the process - grinding.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The cubes of glass are weighed and placed into four categories, according to their approximate target weight. Their weight is then adjusted by grinding stones, in a very noisy machine called a tumbler (pictured above, and there's a video of it in operation, below).

The cubes of glass that are heaviest are added to the tumbler first, followed by the second-heaviest cubes, then the third and finally the fourth. In this way, the cubes of glass that need most weight shaved from them are processed for longer, and they all come out weighing roughly the same.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

After hanging out in the tumbler for a while, the cubes look like pieces of beach glass.

A skilled employee then inspects each one by hand and performs any necessary additional grinding to make sure that any small chips are smoothed out, and the weight falls within the desired parameters.

This particular piece has a chip (marked in red), which is big enough that unfortunately it's reached the end of the line and will be rejected.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Several areas of the Hikari factory are dusted with white powder, but it isn't glass dust, it's boron nitride - a heat-resistant compound of boron and nitrogen which is used in several industries, including cosmetics. At the Hikari factory, it's used to stop the cakes of glass from sticking to their casts when they're pressed into shape.

A welcome effect of the roughening of the glass surface in the tumblers is that it makes the boron nitride adhere more effectively.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

And now the pressing begins!

The blocks of glass, covered in boron nitride, are placed into their ceramic trays and sent on a conveyer belt through a furnace - which not coincidentally, makes this area one of the warmer sections of the Hikari facility. The aim is to soften the glass, but not quite to melting point.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

The very, very hot piece of glass is moved by hand (well, by tongs) and tipped into a heated mold. The molds for lens elements like these are pretty simple, but we're told that it takes much longer to prepare the molds for glass destined for DSLR and binocular prisms.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Once the glass is in the mold, a worker then activates a foot pedal to press the cake of glass into shape. A clock serves as a rough point of reference for the length of time each cake of glass is pressed, but an experienced press operator can also make this call by assessing the hardness of the glass based on how the mold feels in his hands.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

After pressing, and cooling, the cakes of glass (which are now in their puck-shaped final form) are collected for inspection.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Each cake of glass is inspected by hands for any obvious defects resulting from pressing.

This large piece of glass is destined for one of Nikon's high-end telephoto lenses, and pieces like this go through extra inspection steps because they're produced in a lower volume.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

Last but not least is the annealing process - the second most critical phase in the glass-making process, after fine melting. Like fine melting, the exact details of the annealing process are highly confidential. Essentially, annealing is a precisely-regulated heating and cooling process, which takes place over a long period of time - often several days. The goal is to make the internal density of the glass blanks completely consistent, and to eliminate any remaining bubbles and to adjust the refractive index. Generally speaking, lengthier cooling cycles result in denser glass with a higher refractive index, and shorter cycles produce less dense, higher RI glass.

The specific temperature brackets - and the period of time over which those temperatures are sustained - is critical (and secret) and depends on the exact type of glass. The huge plates of glass used in industrial steppers might spend up to two months in the annealing furnace.

The green chalkboard on the front of this furnace is used by workers to record the 'recipe' for the particular trays of glass blanks that have been loaded in. This furnace isn't being used, which is why there's nothing written on the board (and why we were allowed to take pictures of it).

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

After all that, at long last, we have a finished 'blank.' These blanks are packaged and sent off to other Nikon facilities in Japan, China and Thailand for polishing and coating, before finally making their way into NIKKOR lenses.

Inside Nikon's Hikari Glass factory

And that's it! Here, finished blanks of glass are placed into plastic pallets ready for dispatch.

To recap, here are the major stages in the entire process from beginning to end, with links:

  1. Initial mixing of the raw materials to make glass powder LINK
  2. Pre-melting of the glass to make 'frits', which are intentionally created to have either a positive or negative R.I. (direct melting is a simpler process, that we did not observe) LINK
  3. Mixing the frits LINK
  4. Fine melting of the frits (not pictured) to achieve the target refractive index, and extrusion and cutting of the glass ingots into bars LINK
  5. Inspection of the glass for defects LINK
  6. Cutting into blocks into rods and dice LINK
  7. Adjusting the weight of the glass dice in the grinding machine LINK
  8. Heating and pressing the glass dice into molds LINK
  9. Annealing of the resulting blanks, to eliminate distortions in the glass and fine-tune the refractive index LINK
  10. Inspection and measurement of the finished glass blanks

We hope you enjoyed this look inside Nikon's Hikari glass factory. If you're eager to learn even more, our friend Dave Etchells over at Imaging Resource has published an even more detailed account of our visit here.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

A few years ago I become friends with a guy who likes dong infrared photography. It was something that I had tried when I was shooting film, but never quite figured out. My friend had converted an old camera of his and it seemed like a good idea. At the time, I had two old cameras and thought perhaps I could use one of them for infrared. However, the price was too high then.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

Port Arthur and the main Penitentiary looks a lot better in infrared.

Move forward to a few years, and after buying a second-hand camera from a friend, I found myself in the same position. I had two extra camera bodies, so why not convert one to infrared.

You can do this by putting a filter on the end of the lens, but from searching around for information, getting the camera converted specifically for infrared seemed like a better alternative.

What is infrared photography

Perhaps before going any further, it might be good to get an understanding of what infrared photography is actually all about.

Infrared photography is the capture of part of the spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked human eye. Infrared light is at the top end of the spectrum and is not visible to the eye, so to capture it with a camera some special techniques and equipment are required.

It isn’t an easy concept to understand, but once you get out there and start doing it, you will figure out what works and what doesn’t.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

Late winter at Alowyn Gardens. It never snows here, but the infrared camera makes it look like it had.

Different ways of doing infrared

As with most types of photography, there are various ways to go about it. Infrared photography is no different.

Computer conversion to infrared

You can find ways to do infrared conversions on the computer. There are processes that you can use that will help give you that infrared look, however, it is just a look and won’t be the same as doing it with filters or a dedicated camera. If you are curious, though, you could try this first before investing any extra money into it.

 Filters

leannecole-infrared-photography-0200

Alowyn Gardens again, looking again like winter and snow, or perhaps a frost.

There are filters that you can get to put on your lens that will help you to get infrared-style images. These will let the IR light through to your sensor. The advantage is that you don’t have to give up a camera body to do this. I’ve never tried them, so I can’t comment on how good they are or are not.

Camera

One thing a lot of photographers who love this kind of photography do is to get one of their cameras converted to be dedicated just for doing infrared photography. Some do this themselves, or you can take it to camera repair place to do it for you.

I took mine to a place to get the infrared conversion done. I’m always wary of playing around with the sensor. They have to remove the filter that comes with the camera and replace it with one that will let through the infrared light, and block all visible light.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

Late winter at Alowyn Gardens. It never snows here, but the infrared camera can give it that look.

Choosing which sensor filter

You do have to choose which filter you want and some places will give you many choices. Where I sent my camera there were only two options.

The first choice is the 720nm filter. This will give you close to a full infrared effect, but it will allow you to put some color into your images. The second is the 850nm which would give you very rich dark blacks and perfect if all you want to do is black and white infrared.

For me the choice was easy, I wanted to get some of that color. Not all the time, but it was important to have a choice, so I went with the 720nm filter.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography - color infrared image

The 720nm sensor filter allows you to get some color, like having a blue sky.

What to photograph in infrared

Like any type of photography, you can photograph anything with an infrared camera or one with a special filter. However, not everything will have the same effect or give you great results. You really need to experiment with it to see what will work.

People

Portraits can be quite weird, and the infrared light does strange things to the skin and facial features. The hair can look funny too and the lips almost disappear. I don’t know that many people would enjoy getting their portrait done this way. Perhaps for a special event or something, maybe. Who knows.

infrared portrait - Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

The infrared camera gives Chris a completely different look.

Trees and nature – give your scene the look of winter

Trees are fantastic for this type of photography. All the leaves come out looking white. The more moisture the leaves have the whiter they are in the image. The gum trees in Australia don’t have quite the same effect as trees that are not indigenous to the area.

It makes photographing in rain forests pointless as everything shows up as white and doesn’t have the same effect as it does with a color image. It’s hard to see any definition between the plants.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography - b/w of trees and forest in IR

Australian natives are a little different with infrared photography.

One thing I found was that dead trees looked amazing in infrared. If you photograph them surrounded by lots of other trees, or on their own you would get a very different look. They stand out with an elegance that color photography just doesn’t give them.

When traveling around Tasmania with my infrared converted camera I was looking for dead trees everywhere.

dead trees in IR b/w - Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

Dead trees on the side of the road in Tasmania.

Architecture

One of the first times using the camera was in the city of Melbourne. I just walked around and took photos of the buildings and streets to see what could be captured in infrared.

The images were disappointing. Once converted to black and white they didn’t look any different than other images done with a normal camera. They did have a quality that gave them an antique look, but other than that there was no discernable differences.

b/w IR architecture - Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

St Paul’s Cathedral in Melbourne, it looks like any black and white image, though taken with the infrared camera.

While on that same trip to Tasmania there did seem to be some buildings that were really suited  to infrared, like some old sandstone structures. Places like Port Arthur, where all of the buildings are made of stone, came out looking really good with the camera.

When visiting Port Arthur I took images with the infrared camera and the normal one. Once the photos were on the computer it seemed clear that the ones done with the special camera were by far more interesting. Many of the images were processed, some hand colored and then published on social media. The color images of the same subjects were boring in comparison.

Processing

All the images taken with the infrared camera need to be processed. You may find the sepia quality of the images quite good, but there is so much you can do to them. You can convert straight to black and white or play around with the white balance to get some color in the images.

hand colored IR image of a church - Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

A small church in Tasmania, the sky was made blue because of the filter and the stone was hand colored on the computer later.

Experimenting

Really, this is what photography is all about. Get out there with your camera to see what you can capture, what will work, and what doesn’t. Each subject will look different with infrared photography, but you should try every type of photography you can think of to take images and then review your results.

Right now, I’m experimenting with a red filter on the lens. The images are interesting, but I need to try it a lot more.

Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography

Cascade Brewery is an old sandstone building that came out well. In the background, you can see the snow on Mount Wellington.

Finally

While it can be an expensive exercise converting a camera to infrared, if you have an old body lying around, then you might want to consider it. You can do a lot of experimenting with it and you will likely not regret getting it done.

If you like the look of this sort of photography, then there are also other options. It is amazing how much the world can change with infrared and it is a great way to add something different to your portfolio.

The post Tips for Converting an Old Camera for Shooting Infrared Photography appeared first on Digital Photography School.

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